Vascular Sonography

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Vascular Sonography


Sonography is defined as a diagnostic medical procedure, which uses high frequency sound waves to produce dynamic visual images of organs, blood flow, and tissues. At this point, Sonography is increasingly being used in the detection and treatment of heart attack, heart diseases, and vascular diseases that can lead to stroke. Vascular sonography is, therefore defined as the process of using high-pitched sound waves to study the blood vessels in the body. As a matter of fact, an ultrasound image provides an essential way of evaluating the circulatory system of the body. The images are captured in real-time thus helping radiologists to monitor the blood flow to organs/tissues all over the body. In addition, the ultrasound sound images help radiologists to locate and identify blockages and abnormalities like blood clot, emboli, and plaque thereby facilitating a plan for effective treatment.


Vascular refers to the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the other body organs and vice versa. Vascular diseases are unhealthy changes that occur in blood vessels. The circulatory system is very complex in function and structure. The flow of blood is influenced by a number of factors among them are elasticity of the vessel walls, vascular injuries, and the tone of vascular smooth muscle. Individuals with vascular injuries as a result of penetrating or blunt trauma can be divided into those which have direct clinical signs of arterial/venous injury and those with indirect signs. Trauma without direct signs represents a particular challenge as a result of the undetected vascular injury. In the past century, there was a conflict regarding the management of vascular trauma because many people advocated for aggressive surgical exploration. The approach led to a high rate of unnecessary surgery thus generating the need for selective diagnostic imaging to establish if operative intervention is required.

The potential for using the reflection of sonography in the visualization of the internal organs of the human body started in the late 1930s. Austrian neurologist Dussik K.T developed a sonographic transmission technique in order to visualize cerebral ventricles. When a particle is activated to vibrate in its equilibrium position, the vibration is transmitted to a neighboring molecule in the medium.

In this manner, kinetic energy is propagated from one molecule to the other thereby spreading through the medium in what is similar to sine wave pattern. The sound waves compresses and expands the medium as it travels through. An ultrasound image is created thus revealing any abnormality in the blood.

Sonography guided vascular access

Vascular access is an essential procedure that clinicians have to master. Injuries, obesity, intravenous drug use, and chronic medical conditions can make placements of vascular catheters in both peripheral and central veins time-consuming and challenging. In the recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in portable sonar technology, which includes the development of relatively inexpensive machines with adequate resolution to guide needle placement through tissues.

Transducer selection

Transducer characteristics such as shape and frequency determine sonar image quality. For the purpose of vascular access, it is essential to use high frequency as well as small footprint transducers. As a matter of fact, the high-frequency linear array transducer offers a higher resolution of the superficial areas of soft tissues that includes veins and arteries.


The color Doppler and B-mode are the main ultrasound modes that can used to access venous tissues. The B-mode produces recognizable 2D gray scale images. Color Doppler can applied to characterize blood flow. The mode detects optimal flow of blood when the transducer is parallel to the flow. However, when the transducer is perpendicular to the vessel, the detection of flow is worst.

Optimizing image quality

Best visualization of target vessels calls for an optimal machine setting. Generally, proper transducer selection and the selection of pre-programmed vascular sonography settings offer acceptable quality of images. Moreover, other controls that can further enhance the quality of the image are focus, depth, gain, and frequency.

Proper depth adjustment offers a better target vessel imaging. Furthermore, it facilitates the tracking of equipment used through the tissue. When the depth setting is increased, the target vessel becomes smaller. Contrary, when the depth is too shallow, significant structures that surround the target vessels may be lost. That is to say, it is necessary to select the appropriate depth for the target vessel.

The brightness of an image on the screen is directly controlled by the gain setting of the sonar machine. Furthermore, it depends on the selected gains. By increasing the gain of the machine, the image is made brighter thereby easy to study. However, when the gain is decreased, the image becomes darker thus very difficult to analyze. Actually, the highest resolution of any image displayed is at the focal zone. With the use of sonar machines, it is essential to put the focus at the level of the target vessel of interest.

Physical Principles of Sonography: Doppler Effect

During the examination of blood vessels, the moving blood cells act as the reflectors. To specific, the red blood cells act as the reflectors as a result of their great majority in the blood cells. The difference between the frequency of the reflected and transmitted sound is known as Doppler-frequency-shift. If the direction of the blood flows to the transducer, then Doppler-shift is positive. Nevertheless, if the direction of blood flow is away from the probe, the Doppler-shift is negative.

The Doppler-shift can be displayed in a number of ways, which depend on the Doppler technique. The use of spectral mode is popular because Doppler tracing can be seen. Moreover, color/Doppler mode can be used. This mode displays the Doppler-shift as shades of one or more color inside the color box.

Spectral Doppler Sonography

Spectral Doppler techniques display consists of two types: pulsed and continuous wave Doppler modes. Pulsed wave Doppler mode is used in peripheral/abdominal vascular studies while continuous wave Doppler is to measure high velocities. A pulsed wave transducer contains one piezoelectric crystal.

In connection the above point, the crystal transmits pulses at regular intervals. The same crystal receives reflected signal and compares it with the transmitted reference. Pulsing the waves allow Doppler measurements to be taken from a specific region within the image field thereby allowing velocity measurements from the selected vessels. A pulsed wave allows precise localization of the volume of tissue from, which the Doppler blood flow signal is sampled in contrast with the continuous wave technique.

Duplex imaging uses pulsed wave Doppler with a two-dimensional real-time image. Normally, the location of the target volume is displayed on the B-scan tomogram. At this point, the sampling gate can be moved to the lumen of the vessel as highlighted on the real-time image. The velocity changes, which occur in each cardiac cycle, can be displayed graphically. The running time is placed on the horizontal axis. If the cursor is aligned parallel to the blood vessel, the velocity of the moving cells can be seen on the vertical axis.

During a duplex Doppler examination, the Doppler-shift can be displayed graphically or in audible form. The arteries have swish-like sounds while veins have continuous wind-blow-like sounds. The intensity of the audible sounds is directly proportional to the quantity of moving blood cells. The higher of the velocity of the flowing blood, the higher the audible sound is. In effect, pulsed wave Doppler sonography promotes the assessment of the direction, presence, and velocity of blood flow in the sample volume.

The most commonly used methods for measuring the blood flow velocity in a vessel are the maximum velocity method and uniform insonation method. In the uniform insonation method, the entire lumen of the vessel is incorporated into the gate. Nevertheless, maximum velocity method is where a small sample volume is placed in the placed in the centre of the vessel.

Color Doppler imaging

The basics of color Doppler imaging are almost similar to pulsed wave Doppler mode; however, it has a number of multiple sample volumes inside a circumscribed region known as a color box rather a visible one. The position and size of the color box on the B-mode image is determined by the operator. This type of sonography displays the two-dimensional flow information in color superimposed on the B-mode image of the vessel as well as the surrounding tissue.

Inside the color box, all the points are in a shade of red or blue rather than a shade of gray. The direction of flow relative to the transducer is illustrated on a color bar adjacent to the image. By convection, the flow the move towards the transducer is red whereas the flow away from the transducer is blue.

Color Doppler sonogram technique offers movement-information regarding a large part of the image. In point of fact, color Doppler flow imaging promotes the assessment of the presence, quality, and direction of blood flow more quickly than it does in other noninvasive technique.


Planes and Views

For the purposes of vascular access, two types of planes are used: longitudinal and transverse views. In the transverse view, the transducer plane is placed in cross section of the target vessel and the vessel is displayed on the screen as a circle. However, in a longitudinal view, the transducer plane is placed parallel to the one another and the vessel is displayed on the screen as a long tube running across the screen. On the whole, a longitudinal view allows visualization of the entire vessel of interest but requires that needle, transducer beam, and the target vessel to be held parallel to one another.

Differentiating vein and artery

Differentiating between vein and artery is important to safely perform sonography guided vascular access. The simplest way to differentiate between artery and vein is the compressibility of veins. Basically, veins compress with minimal pressure while arteries retain much of their original shape and appearance despite a heavy pressure. While performing an internal jugular vein placement, it is necessary to visualize the influence of respiratory variation on the vein diameter. Trendelenberg positioning and valsalva maneuvers make vein larger; however, it has a minimal impact on the carotid artery.

Scanning techniques

The guidance of vascular access using sonogram can be grouped as dynamic or static. In the static use of sonogram, providers apply sonogram to localize the vein and mark the site of the needle insertion on the skin. The dynamic guidance entails the use of sonogram in real-time with continuous visualization of the needle insertion throughput the procedure. The success rate for dynamic guidance is higher than those of static technique.

Sonographic examination of blood vessel

The Rise and Grandeur of Qing Dynasty

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The Rise and Grandeur of Qing Dynasty

Summary of the development

The Qing dynasty was the last Chinese dynasty with began in 1644 and ended in 1912. It began after the decline of Ming dynasty which had ruled for 276 years. Qing dynasty was being ruled by a bordering nomadic clan known as Manchus. The Manchus forcefully entered Beijing to seize the throne from the Ming rulers. After crossing the walls of Beijing, the Manchu forces engaged in a fight against the Li Zicheng’s army. They succeeded and eventually managed to take the throne and that marked the beginning of the Qing Dynasty. The establishment of the Qing Dynasty marked the beginning of a period of growth for the Chinese and Manchu people. The public works sector significantly added to the growth of the cities and the living standards of people improved due to increased trade and lower taxes on people. Western missioners, who came to China at the time, brought about Christianity and also influenced the Chinese in science. Politically, positions were shared among the Manchu and Chinese people. They had well organized military units which especially played an important role in the success of the dynasty.

Historical context of the rise and grandeur of the Qing dynasty

The establishment of the Qing dynasty was preceded by a period in which the Ming government was weak due to their inability to address famine, natural disasters and economic instability in the empire. People were then convinced that the Ming had lost the Mandate of Heaven. Rebellions then erupted from the Mongols and Jurchens. It is the invasions of the Mongolians and attacks from the Manchus that led to the eventual fall and rise Ming and Qing dynasties respectively. Just before the Ming dynasty was overthrown and Qing dynasty established, China’s economy was undergoing one of the greatest expansions in history. New markets were being established and merchants were expanding their trade activities as far as the South China Sea. Through the ‘Ming Voyages’, Chinese merchants were able to reach Southeast Asia and were actively involved in businesses. The economic growth (dynamic, commercialized) continued through the Qing dynasty period until the eruption of the Opium wars. In 1900, a group of rebels in southern China carried out rebellion against the Qing Dynasty. The success of the revolt saw the establishment Republic of China and the end of Chinese dynastic system.  

Significant contingent factor(s) relating to the rise and grandeur of Qing dynasty

The most significant contingent factors relating to the rise and grandeur of the Qing dynasty include the decline of the Ming dynasty, favorable policies and also the strong economic foundation that preceded the Qing dynasty period. The prominent problems as economic instability, natural disasters weakened the Ming dynasty and that acted as an important factor in influencing the Mongolians and Manchu’s to rebel and finally overthrow the government. That gave rise to the Qing Empire. Favorable policies allowed for lower taxes and improved living standards of the people who in turn gained confidence on the leadership of the Qing dynasty.  Such policies allowed for active providence of public goods to improve the economic well-beings of the people of China and Manchu. The economic foundation laid in the pre-Qing dynasty period allowed for more growth and stability in the empire and largely contributed to its continuity through to the 20th century.

Historical Complexity

The Manchus (rulers of the Qing Dynasty) received much resistance because they were non Han Chinese. They had to adopt Chinese cultures and Ming institutions to be able to dominate over the empire and to reduce resistance. They, for example, sustained the Confucian temple rituals, court practices and civil service. To quell the ever inherent internal rebellion and foreign invasions, Qing rulers subdued China Proper and went beyond the borders to conquer Outer Mongolia, Central Asia (Tibet) and Taiwan, among other neighbouring states. In this way, they were able to eliminate threats both from within and from outside China Proper. Qing rulers were always suspicious of the Han Chinese. As a result, they implemented measures to ensure that the relatively fewer Manchus rulers were not absorbed into the Han Chinese population that was dominant. Such measures included outlawing intermarriage between the two groups and forbidding Chinese migration into the Manchu mainland, among others.

Significance of the rise and grandeur of Qing dynasty in the world today

The significance of the Qing dynasty is evident in the world today. First, it was a period that to a large extent lay foundation for the Republic of China particularly in terms of social and cultural ideals. Economically, the period influenced trade across the world and shaped trade trends that are still in effect even in the world today such as those established between China and Europe. It was the time in which religious constructs took shape in terms of the introduction of the world religions that exist in the world today. Missioners brought Christianity into China, a fact that has continued to influence people within and without the country. The Qing dynasty period is also well known as the period for the development of art in form of paintings and sculpturing. Much of the styles and principles of the arts at the time have had great influences on the art pieces in the contemporary world. Many artists today have borrowed specific techniques and styles from the paintings of the Qing dynasty period. Also, the period also gave rise to the Chinese culturalism and self-sufficiencywhich still forms an important ideal for the Chinese government today.
















Works Cited

‘China’s Last Empire: The Great Qing’. Choice Reviews Online 47.07 (2010): 47-3974-47-3974. Web.

Hall, Eleanor J. Ancient Chinese Dynasties. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2000. Print.

Udry, Stephen P. ‘China’s Last Empire: The Great Qing – By William T. Rowe’. Historian 73.3 (2011): 603-604. Web.

Wang, Wensheng. ‘China’S Last Empire: The Great Qing , By William T. Rowe . Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2012 (Paperback Edition). [Viii] + 360 Pp. US$18.95 (Paperback).’. The China Journal 71 (2014): 285-288. Web.

Zhang, Wei-Bin. The Rise And Fall Of China’s Last Dynasty. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2011. Print.











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Journal Entries

This journal entry explores several texts that reflect the 19th century history. Notably, the texts under exploration are written by different authors despite the fact that they avail almost the same information regarding the history of the time. For instance, in the story Lullaby by Leslie Marmon, she explores the 19th century history regarding the Navajo Indians who are located in the United States. Other stories included in this journal entry include Things Fall Apart, A Sorrowful Woman and The way to Rainy Mountain, which all abound a message regarding 19th century history.

This essay explicates the 19th century history as depicted in several books listed below.


by Leslie Marmon Silko

In the short story ‘Lullaby’, Leslie does not only let the reader get an insight into her own tribal ancestry but also that of the Navajo Indians who form part of the indigenous Indian population in the United States of America. In ‘Lullaby’, Leslie reminds us of the cycle of oral tradition, history and the cycle of life from birth until marriage to the challenges and joys of life up to death.   The writer therefore provides full proof in ‘Lullaby’ that culture, history and customs can be brought back to life through the power of narration even through the use of pen and paper hence book narration. The main character who advances cultural and historical output in the story is an old woman named Ayah. She revisits through memory some of the most tragic moments of her life which she can confidently relate to the intrusion of the white man in the lives of her native peoples (Marmon 7). Ayah can remember the loss of her son in a war started by white people, the forceful adoption of her children by white doctors as well as the brutal employment of her husband, Chato, by a white rancher. All these experiences bring to life the friction that were the hallmarks of the historical relationships that existed between the white people and the native Indian communities like the Navajo Indians highlighted in ‘Lullaby’. Most importantly, all these bits and pieces about their historical experiences were never put down on paper but were committed to memory hence the power of oral traditions. Ayah can remember that the frictions in her life caused by her people’s interaction with the white men marked a permanent alienation with her husband, Chato, even though as far back as she could travel into time, she was close to both her mother and grandmother. The person of Ayah therefore embodies the past, the present and comparative tribal history and the impact of continuous change.

Interestingly, the choice of the name Ayah, by accident or design plays well into the title ‘Lullaby’. Ayah is a word derived from Portuguese [aia] and Hindi [ayah] which stands for maidservant who were employed to handle domestic tasks majorly relating to taking care of children. .

Lullaby explores Navajo culture especially the concept of the deity of Changing Woman as well as Spider Woman which explain why even though Ayah is besieged by misfortunes still is a powerful individual and the history and culture of her community are still in her hands. The author’s choice of Ayah, a woman, as a narrator thus lays credence to the concept of women as custodians of culture, life and history of the society. Ayah who was brought up in an illiterate tribal set up is also equipped with a good memory which is sure to carry and pass on information and experiences to the next generation. Finally as the life of Chato, Ayah’s husband, comes to an end, Ayah sings to him a lullaby which marks the completion of the cycle of tribal life that traditionally began with lullabies sung for children. The author thus concludes the history and customs of her native Indian people in a full cycle.

A Sorrowful Woman

by Gail Godwin

It can be deducted from the story that the woman’s life revolves around her family, which leads her to become overwhelmed in the end. This leads the wife to start withdrawing from the family until they become completely detached from each other. It can also be assumed from the story that “…the woman was suffering from post-partum stress because it is indicated that she had recently had a child (Godwin 3).” However, her post-partum stress can be linked to the pain the woman went through during the birth of the child. This stems from the fact that the child in the story is already a toddler. Thus, the woman is pushed on the wall with the occurrences in his family since he has been pushed to assume the wife’s position and the engaging decisions pushed to him overwhelm him.

There is a link between this story and the 19th century history. This abounds from the fact that she is experiencing some post-partum stress that resulted during the birth of her son. Besides that, the woman I expected to carry out many roles that the family demands. This pushed the woman to a solitary life and a hate for her son that depicts surreptitiously. The connection between the theme in this story and the 19th century history derives from the fact that back then, the role of women was assumed to be the kitchen and availing sexual gratification for their husbands. This is what pushed the woman in the story to stress because “…she did not have another life besides that in her life (Godwin 4).”. It also highlights the need for appreciating women since it can be deducted by the end of the story that the child was happy to eat the food prepared by her mother only to realize that her mother had died. It is essential to mention that the author utilized simple vocabulary and sentences, which facilitates a reader to comprehend the message conveyed.

The Way to Rainy Mountain by N. Scott Momaday

The text aptly explores and records the oral tradition culture of the Kiowa Indians who occupied the area north of the United States and to the south of Canada. Mamaday in The Way to Rainy Mountain manages to weave a believably genuine quest to discover and uncover the rich cultural heritage of the Kiowa Indians from whose decent he comes from on the paternal side while his mother comes from the better known Cherokee Indians. The Way to the Mountain is Momady’s self discovery having been brought up in the company of other groups of native Indians such as the Cherokee. Most importantly, The Way to the Mountain brings back to life the culture of oral tradition and narration as a source of historical information through the narrator (and author himself) who tells the story from first-hand accounts and vivid description.

Until his visit, a kind of pilgrimage he pays to Rainy Mountain, the narrator had never had any real contact with his fatherland and traditions and therefore much of his distant past. He draws historical inspiration from the grave of his own grandmother, Aho, whom he sought at Rainy Mountain. The oral tradition then confronts the narrator in the person of 100-year-old Kiwan woman named Ko-Sahn. Like in many cultures across the world, the older generation presents the richest database of oral tradition and history that is handed down from generation to the next through word of mouth and Ko-Sahn proves to be one such authority. The narrator wants the readers to be with him in the present though he is in the process of digging up his past. His journey takes him from the mountains near Yellowstone towards the southeastern part of Oklahoma to trace the same route his Kiowa ancestors followed on their transition from “the bend and blind woodland people” to the proud majestic rulers of the southern plains.

An interesting element of oral folk emerges in the form of similes. These were standout aspects of oral narration as well as speech among native and traditional folk. In this instance, the narrator recounts an occurrence of a dry spell by directly comparing the earth to iron. He says the earth was like iron’. He goes beyond that to bring us head-to-head with legends which are a famously notorious source of mystery propagated by oral traditional narration. This tale which was dated about two centuries prior comes from his grandmother. The Kiowa legend goes ahead to link the seven sisters to the skies thus advancing a story that the Kiowas have relatives in the sky. This cannot be proven but it is one of the myths attempting to explain Kiowas links to the skies as well as explain the origin of some of the stars in the sky. The theory nevertheless holds no water and cannot stand proof to logic but is undoubtedly one of the interesting aspect of oral traditions and their often very creative and far-fetched genius in attempting to explain their origins and the ,existence of phenomena, both natural and manmade. The narrator thus succeeds in proving he undertook a content-laden anthropological journey to shed light on his culture, their history and his people’s heritage in as colorful and as detailed a narration.

Things Fall Apart

by Chinua Achebe

Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe abounds as a novel that was written in the early 19th century. This story explores the struggles that existed then between the Igbo people of Nigeria and the White colonial government. The story particularly centers on Okonkwo who abounds as a strong, hardworking protagonist who did not want to expose his weakness. This derived from his father’s tainted legacy as he was considered as cheap and a coward. Despite all this, a major theme depicts from the story and surrounds the ineffectiveness of men in the society. It can be deducted that despite Okonkwo focusing on building his wealth on his own, “…he fails to protect his half son “Ikemefuna” and strikes him to death in spite of Ikemefuna’s pleas to him for protection (Achebe 85).” This clearly shows that he failed in his role as a father. Unoka also depicts as a failure in the novel because it is indicated that he died a poor man and had debts of other people. The white men in the region, during that time, were focused with spreading Christianity something that did not go down well with Okonkwo and the elders.

Clearly, the plot of the novel reflects the 19th century history from the fact that men were cruel to their wives during that time especially in traditional settings such as the one depicted in the novel. Additionally, the plot of the story also reflects the 19th century history because it can be deducted that “…Africans were fighting for their rights, tradition and ancestral land (Achebe 65).” This is true with the occurrences in the African continent during that period. The white men effort to spread Christianity is also true with history. It can be deducted that when Whites came to Africa many societies had traditional religions before they were introduced to Christianity. There are many stylistic devices included in this text. This ranges from symbolism, imagery and other figures of speech. The author also utilized simple sentences and vocabulary, which promotes comprehension by a reader.

An Introduction to the Slave Narratives

by William L. Andrews

An Introduction to the Slave Narratives is written in the slavery period historical context. This stems from the fact that many slaves were transported to the American South in the late 19th century to early 20th century. Thus, most of the population of Blacks in the American South during that period comprised of blacks. From the story, it can be deducted that the large number of blacks was maintained as labor force in the post-slavery South and the population was not allowed to threaten the region’s character because it was considered as a white man’s country. The story also indicates that the slavery in the South resulted to an economic foundation that supported the dominant planter ruling class (Andrews). Additionally, under slavery, there was a hierarchical and patriarchal system that promoted white supremacy as it rested on the masculinity honor and privilege. Notably, blacks in American formed their own sense of identity, values, family relations and religion.

This story also contributes to the theme reflecting on the 19th century history. This derives from the fact that it is the same time when slavery was rampant in America and resulted to the shipment of many Africans to the South of America. Additionally, the story contributes to the theme of 19th century history since it also explores societal relationship whereby it is asserted that the American society was centered on a patriarchal mode that favored the males who tried to appear as huge plantation owners and had slaves to tend their land. “It is also reflected in the story how Africans were humiliated by whites (Andrews).” However, they strived to come up with their own identity that were identified through familial, religion and value set up. Despite all the aforementioned points, it is also essential to mention the point that the novel is easy to read and presents other themes within its plot. The author utilized simple sentences and vocabulary, which facilitates comprehension by a reader. Additionally, it is critical to mention that the author incorporated images and figures of speech in the writing. These were aimed for the clear depiction of the author’s meaning.




Works Cited

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. London: Penguin Books Limited, 2013.

Andrews, William L. An Introduction to the Slave Narrative . 20 May 2014. 21 May 2014


Godwin, Gail. “A Sorrowful Woman.” Godwin, Gail. A Sorrowful Woman. London: Penguine,

2013. 1-5.

Marmon, Leslie, S. “Lullaby”. Still Wild: Short Fiction of the American West 1950 to the

  1. Ed. McMurthy, Larry. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc., 2012.

Momaday, Scott. N. The Way to Rainy Mountain. New Mexico: The University of New Mexico

Press, 2001.

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Gender and race in Othello

In a wide variety of his educative and social works, William Shakespeare characteristically shows gender roles, differences and ethnic discrimination. Othello is one of these works. It is an all time favorite’s play to art audiences. Othello is a play whose characters are put on a judgmental scale depending on their physical appearance and gender characteristics. The main characters’ different ethnicity and background provides a basis for the development of racial conflict and differences. On the other hand, the play contains a complex set of female characters that bring out the theme of gender roles, views and feminism in this account. These two themes of gender and racial conflict are well developed in this play. They are both interrelated and closely connected due to the characterization. In Othello, development of gender differences and gender roles is accompanied by tones and integrated ethnic tensions.

The female gender is a major part of this play. Women behavior is seen as an important aspect of the play. Desdemona is a female character whose behavior is used to illustrate women behavior. Her alleged infidelity and dishonesty is cause of death to many characters within the play among them herself and Othello, her husband. Desdemona and her waiting lady by the name Emilia are protagonists for feminism and sexual ideologies. All the women characters in this play are perceived to be sources of tension and antagonism between feminist and anti-feminist ideologies.

Descriptively looking at these different roles, Desdemona is the wife to Othello and daughter to Brabantio. She is characterized as an ideal woman. The author describes her vividly as beautiful, attractive and virtuous. Cassio describes her as divine, and he goes ahead to tell Iago that she is indeed perfect. Desdemona reveals to her father that she loves Othello and pledges her loyalty to both him and her mother. She is independent in her decisions and self-righteous. She openly declares her love for her husband, and states “our loves and comforts should build up even as our days do grow” (2.1.193-194). Desdemona is hesitant to talk of any feminist ideals about love and relationship. She goes ahead to claim that it’s unforeseen for her to be unfaithful to her husband, and as she puts it, not even “for the whole world” (4.3.82). She submits to her husband and agrees upon everything that he wants. She goes ahead to describe herself as obedient (3.3.97). Othello hits he and she leaves with the argument that if she stays, she will offend him the more. She asks for Iago’s advice on how to win Othello back again.” What shall I do to win him again”(3.2.159). Desdemona maintains her role of a good and submissive wife until her husband murders her. Though it was not her fault, she tells Emilia that she killed herself which is evidently wrong. She willingly admits to a crime that her husband was responsible for committing. She represents ideal women performance throughout the play. She is also portrayed as wise and intelligent through her eloquence. This aspect is brought out through her willingness to defend her husband before her father and profess her love for him. She is, however, submissive and obedient when it comes to her relationship with Othello. She takes the character of a meek wife.

Emilia is another female character in this play. She is the wife to Iago and a major contrast to Desdemona’s character. She slightly resembles Desdemona in her obedience to her husband. She steals Desdemona’s handkerchief gift from her husband because Iago “had more than a hundred times asked her to steal it” (3.3.308-310). She goes ahead to claim that she does “nothing but please his fantasy” (3.3315). Emilia threatens to take back the handkerchief she gave to Iago if he does not use it for a great and acceptable purpose. Judging from this statement, Emilia brings out an aspect of domination in the relationship. At the beginning of the play, Emilia talks back to her husband. This shows her rude character and opposition to submit before him. In another example, Emilia tells Desdemona that she would commit adultery and states that “Nor I neither by this heavenly light; I might do it as well in the dark” (4.2.69-70). She further develops her opinion by stating that husbands should be blamed for their wives’ fall. She gives the huge responsibility placed on the husband to keep the marriage intact and in good terms. Emilia claims that women have the power of revenge against their husbands. She maintains her own opinions different from those of Iago an aspect that shows her interdependence. Her attitude and opinion towards the male gender is cynical through her statement “they are just stomachs and we women are all but food” they eat us and later belch us when full”(3.4.106-110).

On the other hand, male characterization within the play views women in multiple perceptions. Cassio recognizes Desdemona’s behavior by praising her for her politeness and positive character. He believes that she is perfect. This is used to show male’s acceptance of some women behavior. Unlike Cassio, Iago’s perception towards the female gender is somewhat negative. He gives Emilia his description of women as “pictures to be hanged on the door, house bells, and wild cats, players in your marriage and housewives in a man’s bed” (2.3.110). In this case he seems to bring out women as objects of use and obligations to men. This attitude is explored throughout the play as he claims that females are foolish and infidels. This is brought out in his statement where he says, “she never yet foolish that was fair, for even her folly helped her to an heir” (2.2.138)

In addition to Iago’s views, Othello has varied and complex perceptions towards women. Othello is seen to appreciate and praise Desdemona’s behavior throughout the play. He tells Iago that he loves her for her gentleness and her value would not be comparable to anything, not even the sea’s worth. He goes ahead to tell his wife that it’s too much joy for him to speak of what he feels. However, this Othello’s attitude does not go on for a while. It takes a dramatic turn for the worst the moment he believes that Desdemona is unfaithful and an infidel. He becomes rude and harsh to the point of hitting his wife whom he claimed to love so much. He accused her of infidelity and unfaithfulness which ends with him murdering her. This leads to Othello changing his attitude towards women from that of admiration and love to cruelty and hatred. This notion is used to indicate men’ domination over the women. They have the permission and freedom to do onto their wives as they please. To add on that, they have the reasons to discipline their wives and it is their responsibility to tame women’s behavior. It is with this respect Othello hits his wife to the extent of killing her.

There is a vivid antagonism between traditional views and feminist aspects towards women in this play. These are both brought up through the two characters of Desdemona and Emilia. Emilia is assertive, independent on opinions and represents women domination. On the other hand, Desdemona is passive and submissive wife character that represents the ideal woman.

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Touching briefly on the racism theme of the play, it is a little bit complex. Some are for racism whereas others are against the vice. Some characters due to his ethnicity background hate Othello. They associate his behavior with him being a ‘moor’. Though his evil deeds are because of Iago’s inciting, his race is used to judge him, and it’s because of his animistic deeds. This represents the egocentric African men who do not reason before acting. Many characters in the play use harsh and cruel words to describe him.

I agree that these two characters of Emilia and Desdemona represent gender differences and roles in the play. Desdemona represents the traditional perception of women and the female fraternity as a whole. Emilia represents the modern viewpoints and independence of a woman. I however, do not agree with traditions and expectations being used to judge on women. Each of them has different opinions different from those of the rest and should be judged as so.

Works cited

Kolin, Philip C. Othello. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print.

Strickler, Breyan. “Sex in the City: An Ecocritical Perspective on the Place of Gender and Race in Othello.” Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, 12. 2 (2005): 119–137. Print.

Help with Your Math Homework


  1. Definitions
  2. Two groups (G, *) and (G, *) are isomorphic if there exist a one-to-one correspondence i.e. , such that .
  3. Let H be subgroup of G. Then H is called normal subgroup of G if the left coset of H in G is a right coset of H in G OR
  4. The group of cosets of a normal subgroup H of the group G is called the quotient group or the factor group of G by H and it’s denoted by which G modulo H OR G mod H.

2. Solutions

  1. {(1), (123), (231), (12)} Not a subgroup because (123)(12) = (13) which does not belong to the set.
  2. Subgroup must contain the identity element
  3. {(1), (453), (12), (12)(453)}

(453)(12)= (12) (453)

(12)(453)(12) = (453)

This is a subgroup of S5

  1. {(1), (1234), (13)(24), (1432)} Yes, this is a subgroup of S5 since any multiplication of any element in the set belongs to the set

3. Solutions

  1. (1435)-1 = (1534)

(1534)(12) = (25413) = (23)(21)(24)(25)

  1. (153)(24) = (13)(15)(24)

4. Solutions

  1. (12345) = order 5
  2. (12)(234)(13) = (41)(32) = order lcm(2,2) = 2
  3. (1325)(46) = order lcm(4,2) = 4

5. Solutions

α = (1324) order of α = 4

α86 = α2

(1324)(1324) = (12) (34)

6. Solutions

Z4 under addition is isomorphic to {1, -1, i, -i} under multiplication

7. Solutions

U(14) = {1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13} All elements relatively prime to 14

U(18) = {1, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17} All elements relatively prime to 18


8. Solutions

Every finite group is isomorphic to a group of permutations.

9. Solutions

  1. S5 = 5! = 120
  2. A6 = ½ x6! = 360
  3. D5 = 10

10. Solutions

<4> = {0, 4, 8, 12}            Z16 = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4… 15}

0 = {0, 4, 8, 12}

1 = {1, 5, 9, 13}

2 = {2, 6, 10, 14}

3 = {3, 7, 11, 15}

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11. Solutions

Z16/<4> ≈ Z4 = {0, 1, 2, 3}

0 1 2 3
0 0 1 2 3
1 1 2 3 0
2 2 3 0 1
3 3 0 1 2


12. Solutions

Order (H) = 20 and Order (K) = 9. Then Order(HK) = LCM (20, 9) = 180.


13. Solutions


<(123)> = {(1), (123), (132)}


Left Cosets

(12)(123) = (23)

(13)(123) = (12)

(23)(123) = (13)

(123)(123) = (132)

(132)(123) = (1)

(12)(132) = (13)

(13)(132) = (23)

(23)(132) = (12)

(132)(132) = (123)

(123) (132) = (1)



Right Cosets

(123)(12) = (13)

(123)(13) = (23)

(123)(23) = (12)

(123)(123) = (132)

(123)(132) = (1)

(132)(12) = (23)

(132)(13) = (12)

(132)(23) = (13)

(132)(132) = (123)

(132)(123) = (1)

Yes it is a normal subgroup of S3 since distinct left cosets = distinct right cosets

14. Solutions

If H is a subgroup of a finite group G, then divides

15. Solutions

<a3> = {e, a3, a6, a9, a12}

<a> = {e, a, a2, a3, a4,…,a14}

Left Cosets

{e, a3, a6, a9, a12}

{a, a4, a7, a8, a14}

{a2, a5, a8, a9, a14}

16. Solutions

Order of U(40) = 16

Order of U(40)/K = 4

Since (4, 3) are relatively prime, the order of 3K = 4

17. Solutions

Order (S5) = 120

Order (H) = 3

Index = Order (S5)/Order (H) = 120/3= 40