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This journal entry explores several texts that reflect the 19th century history. Notably, the texts under exploration are written by different authors despite the fact that they avail almost the same information regarding the history of the time. For instance, in the story Lullaby by Leslie Marmon, she explores the 19th century history regarding the Navajo Indians who are located in the United States. Other stories included in this journal entry include Things Fall Apart, A Sorrowful Woman and The way to Rainy Mountain, which all abound a message regarding 19th century history.

This essay explicates the 19th century history as depicted in several books listed below.

Lullaby

by Leslie Marmon Silko

In the short story ‘Lullaby’, Leslie does not only let the reader get an insight into her own tribal ancestry but also that of the Navajo Indians who form part of the indigenous Indian population in the United States of America. In ‘Lullaby’, Leslie reminds us of the cycle of oral tradition, history and the cycle of life from birth until marriage to the challenges and joys of life up to death.   The writer therefore provides full proof in ‘Lullaby’ that culture, history and customs can be brought back to life through the power of narration even through the use of pen and paper hence book narration. The main character who advances cultural and historical output in the story is an old woman named Ayah. She revisits through memory some of the most tragic moments of her life which she can confidently relate to the intrusion of the white man in the lives of her native peoples (Marmon 7). Ayah can remember the loss of her son in a war started by white people, the forceful adoption of her children by white doctors as well as the brutal employment of her husband, Chato, by a white rancher. All these experiences bring to life the friction that were the hallmarks of the historical relationships that existed between the white people and the native Indian communities like the Navajo Indians highlighted in ‘Lullaby’. Most importantly, all these bits and pieces about their historical experiences were never put down on paper but were committed to memory hence the power of oral traditions. Ayah can remember that the frictions in her life caused by her people’s interaction with the white men marked a permanent alienation with her husband, Chato, even though as far back as she could travel into time, she was close to both her mother and grandmother. The person of Ayah therefore embodies the past, the present and comparative tribal history and the impact of continuous change.

Interestingly, the choice of the name Ayah, by accident or design plays well into the title ‘Lullaby’. Ayah is a word derived from Portuguese [aia] and Hindi [ayah] which stands for maidservant who were employed to handle domestic tasks majorly relating to taking care of children. .

Lullaby explores Navajo culture especially the concept of the deity of Changing Woman as well as Spider Woman which explain why even though Ayah is besieged by misfortunes still is a powerful individual and the history and culture of her community are still in her hands. The author’s choice of Ayah, a woman, as a narrator thus lays credence to the concept of women as custodians of culture, life and history of the society. Ayah who was brought up in an illiterate tribal set up is also equipped with a good memory which is sure to carry and pass on information and experiences to the next generation. Finally as the life of Chato, Ayah’s husband, comes to an end, Ayah sings to him a lullaby which marks the completion of the cycle of tribal life that traditionally began with lullabies sung for children. The author thus concludes the history and customs of her native Indian people in a full cycle.

A Sorrowful Woman

by Gail Godwin

It can be deducted from the story that the woman’s life revolves around her family, which leads her to become overwhelmed in the end. This leads the wife to start withdrawing from the family until they become completely detached from each other. It can also be assumed from the story that “…the woman was suffering from post-partum stress because it is indicated that she had recently had a child (Godwin 3).” However, her post-partum stress can be linked to the pain the woman went through during the birth of the child. This stems from the fact that the child in the story is already a toddler. Thus, the woman is pushed on the wall with the occurrences in his family since he has been pushed to assume the wife’s position and the engaging decisions pushed to him overwhelm him.

There is a link between this story and the 19th century history. This abounds from the fact that she is experiencing some post-partum stress that resulted during the birth of her son. Besides that, the woman I expected to carry out many roles that the family demands. This pushed the woman to a solitary life and a hate for her son that depicts surreptitiously. The connection between the theme in this story and the 19th century history derives from the fact that back then, the role of women was assumed to be the kitchen and availing sexual gratification for their husbands. This is what pushed the woman in the story to stress because “…she did not have another life besides that in her life (Godwin 4).”. It also highlights the need for appreciating women since it can be deducted by the end of the story that the child was happy to eat the food prepared by her mother only to realize that her mother had died. It is essential to mention that the author utilized simple vocabulary and sentences, which facilitates a reader to comprehend the message conveyed.

The Way to Rainy Mountain by N. Scott Momaday

The text aptly explores and records the oral tradition culture of the Kiowa Indians who occupied the area north of the United States and to the south of Canada. Mamaday in The Way to Rainy Mountain manages to weave a believably genuine quest to discover and uncover the rich cultural heritage of the Kiowa Indians from whose decent he comes from on the paternal side while his mother comes from the better known Cherokee Indians. The Way to the Mountain is Momady’s self discovery having been brought up in the company of other groups of native Indians such as the Cherokee. Most importantly, The Way to the Mountain brings back to life the culture of oral tradition and narration as a source of historical information through the narrator (and author himself) who tells the story from first-hand accounts and vivid description.

Until his visit, a kind of pilgrimage he pays to Rainy Mountain, the narrator had never had any real contact with his fatherland and traditions and therefore much of his distant past. He draws historical inspiration from the grave of his own grandmother, Aho, whom he sought at Rainy Mountain. The oral tradition then confronts the narrator in the person of 100-year-old Kiwan woman named Ko-Sahn. Like in many cultures across the world, the older generation presents the richest database of oral tradition and history that is handed down from generation to the next through word of mouth and Ko-Sahn proves to be one such authority. The narrator wants the readers to be with him in the present though he is in the process of digging up his past. His journey takes him from the mountains near Yellowstone towards the southeastern part of Oklahoma to trace the same route his Kiowa ancestors followed on their transition from “the bend and blind woodland people” to the proud majestic rulers of the southern plains.

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An interesting element of oral folk emerges in the form of similes. These were standout aspects of oral narration as well as speech among native and traditional folk. In this instance, the narrator recounts an occurrence of a dry spell by directly comparing the earth to iron. He says the earth was like iron’. He goes beyond that to bring us head-to-head with legends which are a famously notorious source of mystery propagated by oral traditional narration. This tale which was dated about two centuries prior comes from his grandmother. The Kiowa legend goes ahead to link the seven sisters to the skies thus advancing a story that the Kiowas have relatives in the sky. This cannot be proven but it is one of the myths attempting to explain Kiowas links to the skies as well as explain the origin of some of the stars in the sky. The theory nevertheless holds no water and cannot stand proof to logic but is undoubtedly one of the interesting aspect of oral traditions and their often very creative and far-fetched genius in attempting to explain their origins and the ,existence of phenomena, both natural and manmade. The narrator thus succeeds in proving he undertook a content-laden anthropological journey to shed light on his culture, their history and his people’s heritage in as colorful and as detailed a narration.

Things Fall Apart

by Chinua Achebe

Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe abounds as a novel that was written in the early 19th century. This story explores the struggles that existed then between the Igbo people of Nigeria and the White colonial government. The story particularly centers on Okonkwo who abounds as a strong, hardworking protagonist who did not want to expose his weakness. This derived from his father’s tainted legacy as he was considered as cheap and a coward. Despite all this, a major theme depicts from the story and surrounds the ineffectiveness of men in the society. It can be deducted that despite Okonkwo focusing on building his wealth on his own, “…he fails to protect his half son “Ikemefuna” and strikes him to death in spite of Ikemefuna’s pleas to him for protection (Achebe 85).” This clearly shows that he failed in his role as a father. Unoka also depicts as a failure in the novel because it is indicated that he died a poor man and had debts of other people. The white men in the region, during that time, were focused with spreading Christianity something that did not go down well with Okonkwo and the elders.

Clearly, the plot of the novel reflects the 19th century history from the fact that men were cruel to their wives during that time especially in traditional settings such as the one depicted in the novel. Additionally, the plot of the story also reflects the 19th century history because it can be deducted that “…Africans were fighting for their rights, tradition and ancestral land (Achebe 65).” This is true with the occurrences in the African continent during that period. The white men effort to spread Christianity is also true with history. It can be deducted that when Whites came to Africa many societies had traditional religions before they were introduced to Christianity. There are many stylistic devices included in this text. This ranges from symbolism, imagery and other figures of speech. The author also utilized simple sentences and vocabulary, which promotes comprehension by a reader.

An Introduction to the Slave Narratives

by William L. Andrews

An Introduction to the Slave Narratives is written in the slavery period historical context. This stems from the fact that many slaves were transported to the American South in the late 19th century to early 20th century. Thus, most of the population of Blacks in the American South during that period comprised of blacks. From the story, it can be deducted that the large number of blacks was maintained as labor force in the post-slavery South and the population was not allowed to threaten the region’s character because it was considered as a white man’s country. The story also indicates that the slavery in the South resulted to an economic foundation that supported the dominant planter ruling class (Andrews). Additionally, under slavery, there was a hierarchical and patriarchal system that promoted white supremacy as it rested on the masculinity honor and privilege. Notably, blacks in American formed their own sense of identity, values, family relations and religion.

This story also contributes to the theme reflecting on the 19th century history. This derives from the fact that it is the same time when slavery was rampant in America and resulted to the shipment of many Africans to the South of America. Additionally, the story contributes to the theme of 19th century history since it also explores societal relationship whereby it is asserted that the American society was centered on a patriarchal mode that favored the males who tried to appear as huge plantation owners and had slaves to tend their land. “It is also reflected in the story how Africans were humiliated by whites (Andrews).” However, they strived to come up with their own identity that were identified through familial, religion and value set up. Despite all the aforementioned points, it is also essential to mention the point that the novel is easy to read and presents other themes within its plot. The author utilized simple sentences and vocabulary, which facilitates comprehension by a reader. Additionally, it is critical to mention that the author incorporated images and figures of speech in the writing. These were aimed for the clear depiction of the author’s meaning.

 

 

 

Works Cited

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. London: Penguin Books Limited, 2013.

Andrews, William L. An Introduction to the Slave Narrative . 20 May 2014. 21 May 2014

<http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/intro.html>.

Godwin, Gail. “A Sorrowful Woman.” Godwin, Gail. A Sorrowful Woman. London: Penguine,

2013. 1-5.

Marmon, Leslie, S. “Lullaby”. Still Wild: Short Fiction of the American West 1950 to the

  1. Ed. McMurthy, Larry. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc., 2012.

Momaday, Scott. N. The Way to Rainy Mountain. New Mexico: The University of New Mexico

Press, 2001.

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Gender and race in Othello

In a wide variety of his educative and social works, William Shakespeare characteristically shows gender roles, differences and ethnic discrimination. Othello is one of these works. It is an all time favorite’s play to art audiences. Othello is a play whose characters are put on a judgmental scale depending on their physical appearance and gender characteristics. The main characters’ different ethnicity and background provides a basis for the development of racial conflict and differences. On the other hand, the play contains a complex set of female characters that bring out the theme of gender roles, views and feminism in this account. These two themes of gender and racial conflict are well developed in this play. They are both interrelated and closely connected due to the characterization. In Othello, development of gender differences and gender roles is accompanied by tones and integrated ethnic tensions.

The female gender is a major part of this play. Women behavior is seen as an important aspect of the play. Desdemona is a female character whose behavior is used to illustrate women behavior. Her alleged infidelity and dishonesty is cause of death to many characters within the play among them herself and Othello, her husband. Desdemona and her waiting lady by the name Emilia are protagonists for feminism and sexual ideologies. All the women characters in this play are perceived to be sources of tension and antagonism between feminist and anti-feminist ideologies.

Descriptively looking at these different roles, Desdemona is the wife to Othello and daughter to Brabantio. She is characterized as an ideal woman. The author describes her vividly as beautiful, attractive and virtuous. Cassio describes her as divine, and he goes ahead to tell Iago that she is indeed perfect. Desdemona reveals to her father that she loves Othello and pledges her loyalty to both him and her mother. She is independent in her decisions and self-righteous. She openly declares her love for her husband, and states “our loves and comforts should build up even as our days do grow” (2.1.193-194). Desdemona is hesitant to talk of any feminist ideals about love and relationship. She goes ahead to claim that it’s unforeseen for her to be unfaithful to her husband, and as she puts it, not even “for the whole world” (4.3.82). She submits to her husband and agrees upon everything that he wants. She goes ahead to describe herself as obedient (3.3.97). Othello hits he and she leaves with the argument that if she stays, she will offend him the more. She asks for Iago’s advice on how to win Othello back again.” What shall I do to win him again”(3.2.159). Desdemona maintains her role of a good and submissive wife until her husband murders her. Though it was not her fault, she tells Emilia that she killed herself which is evidently wrong. She willingly admits to a crime that her husband was responsible for committing. She represents ideal women performance throughout the play. She is also portrayed as wise and intelligent through her eloquence. This aspect is brought out through her willingness to defend her husband before her father and profess her love for him. She is, however, submissive and obedient when it comes to her relationship with Othello. She takes the character of a meek wife.

Emilia is another female character in this play. She is the wife to Iago and a major contrast to Desdemona’s character. She slightly resembles Desdemona in her obedience to her husband. She steals Desdemona’s handkerchief gift from her husband because Iago “had more than a hundred times asked her to steal it” (3.3.308-310). She goes ahead to claim that she does “nothing but please his fantasy” (3.3315). Emilia threatens to take back the handkerchief she gave to Iago if he does not use it for a great and acceptable purpose. Judging from this statement, Emilia brings out an aspect of domination in the relationship. At the beginning of the play, Emilia talks back to her husband. This shows her rude character and opposition to submit before him. In another example, Emilia tells Desdemona that she would commit adultery and states that “Nor I neither by this heavenly light; I might do it as well in the dark” (4.2.69-70). She further develops her opinion by stating that husbands should be blamed for their wives’ fall. She gives the huge responsibility placed on the husband to keep the marriage intact and in good terms. Emilia claims that women have the power of revenge against their husbands. She maintains her own opinions different from those of Iago an aspect that shows her interdependence. Her attitude and opinion towards the male gender is cynical through her statement “they are just stomachs and we women are all but food” they eat us and later belch us when full”(3.4.106-110).

On the other hand, male characterization within the play views women in multiple perceptions. Cassio recognizes Desdemona’s behavior by praising her for her politeness and positive character. He believes that she is perfect. This is used to show male’s acceptance of some women behavior. Unlike Cassio, Iago’s perception towards the female gender is somewhat negative. He gives Emilia his description of women as “pictures to be hanged on the door, house bells, and wild cats, players in your marriage and housewives in a man’s bed” (2.3.110). In this case he seems to bring out women as objects of use and obligations to men. This attitude is explored throughout the play as he claims that females are foolish and infidels. This is brought out in his statement where he says, “she never yet foolish that was fair, for even her folly helped her to an heir” (2.2.138)

In addition to Iago’s views, Othello has varied and complex perceptions towards women. Othello is seen to appreciate and praise Desdemona’s behavior throughout the play. He tells Iago that he loves her for her gentleness and her value would not be comparable to anything, not even the sea’s worth. He goes ahead to tell his wife that it’s too much joy for him to speak of what he feels. However, this Othello’s attitude does not go on for a while. It takes a dramatic turn for the worst the moment he believes that Desdemona is unfaithful and an infidel. He becomes rude and harsh to the point of hitting his wife whom he claimed to love so much. He accused her of infidelity and unfaithfulness which ends with him murdering her. This leads to Othello changing his attitude towards women from that of admiration and love to cruelty and hatred. This notion is used to indicate men’ domination over the women. They have the permission and freedom to do onto their wives as they please. To add on that, they have the reasons to discipline their wives and it is their responsibility to tame women’s behavior. It is with this respect Othello hits his wife to the extent of killing her.

There is a vivid antagonism between traditional views and feminist aspects towards women in this play. These are both brought up through the two characters of Desdemona and Emilia. Emilia is assertive, independent on opinions and represents women domination. On the other hand, Desdemona is passive and submissive wife character that represents the ideal woman.

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Touching briefly on the racism theme of the play, it is a little bit complex. Some are for racism whereas others are against the vice. Some characters due to his ethnicity background hate Othello. They associate his behavior with him being a ‘moor’. Though his evil deeds are because of Iago’s inciting, his race is used to judge him, and it’s because of his animistic deeds. This represents the egocentric African men who do not reason before acting. Many characters in the play use harsh and cruel words to describe him.

I agree that these two characters of Emilia and Desdemona represent gender differences and roles in the play. Desdemona represents the traditional perception of women and the female fraternity as a whole. Emilia represents the modern viewpoints and independence of a woman. I however, do not agree with traditions and expectations being used to judge on women. Each of them has different opinions different from those of the rest and should be judged as so.

Works cited

Kolin, Philip C. Othello. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print.

Strickler, Breyan. “Sex in the City: An Ecocritical Perspective on the Place of Gender and Race in Othello.” Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, 12. 2 (2005): 119–137. Print.

Help with Your Math Homework

ReviewExam2

  1. Definitions
  2. Two groups (G, *) and (G, *) are isomorphic if there exist a one-to-one correspondence i.e. , such that .
  3. Let H be subgroup of G. Then H is called normal subgroup of G if the left coset of H in G is a right coset of H in G OR
  4. The group of cosets of a normal subgroup H of the group G is called the quotient group or the factor group of G by H and it’s denoted by which G modulo H OR G mod H.

2. Solutions

  1. {(1), (123), (231), (12)} Not a subgroup because (123)(12) = (13) which does not belong to the set.
  2. Subgroup must contain the identity element
  3. {(1), (453), (12), (12)(453)}

(453)(12)= (12) (453)

(12)(453)(12) = (453)

This is a subgroup of S5

  1. {(1), (1234), (13)(24), (1432)} Yes, this is a subgroup of S5 since any multiplication of any element in the set belongs to the set

3. Solutions

  1. (1435)-1 = (1534)

(1534)(12) = (25413) = (23)(21)(24)(25)

  1. (153)(24) = (13)(15)(24)

4. Solutions

  1. (12345) = order 5
  2. (12)(234)(13) = (41)(32) = order lcm(2,2) = 2
  3. (1325)(46) = order lcm(4,2) = 4

5. Solutions

α = (1324) order of α = 4

α86 = α2

(1324)(1324) = (12) (34)

6. Solutions

Z4 under addition is isomorphic to {1, -1, i, -i} under multiplication

7. Solutions

U(14) = {1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13} All elements relatively prime to 14

U(18) = {1, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17} All elements relatively prime to 18

Isomorphic

8. Solutions

Every finite group is isomorphic to a group of permutations.

9. Solutions

  1. S5 = 5! = 120
  2. A6 = ½ x6! = 360
  3. D5 = 10

10. Solutions

<4> = {0, 4, 8, 12}            Z16 = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4… 15}

0 = {0, 4, 8, 12}

1 = {1, 5, 9, 13}

2 = {2, 6, 10, 14}

3 = {3, 7, 11, 15}

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11. Solutions

Z16/<4> ≈ Z4 = {0, 1, 2, 3}

0 1 2 3
0 0 1 2 3
1 1 2 3 0
2 2 3 0 1
3 3 0 1 2

 

12. Solutions

Order (H) = 20 and Order (K) = 9. Then Order(HK) = LCM (20, 9) = 180.

 

13. Solutions

 

<(123)> = {(1), (123), (132)}

 

Left Cosets

(12)(123) = (23)

(13)(123) = (12)

(23)(123) = (13)

(123)(123) = (132)

(132)(123) = (1)

(12)(132) = (13)

(13)(132) = (23)

(23)(132) = (12)

(132)(132) = (123)

(123) (132) = (1)

 

 

Right Cosets


(123)(12) = (13)

(123)(13) = (23)

(123)(23) = (12)

(123)(123) = (132)

(123)(132) = (1)

(132)(12) = (23)

(132)(13) = (12)

(132)(23) = (13)

(132)(132) = (123)

(132)(123) = (1)


Yes it is a normal subgroup of S3 since distinct left cosets = distinct right cosets

14. Solutions

If H is a subgroup of a finite group G, then divides

15. Solutions

<a3> = {e, a3, a6, a9, a12}

<a> = {e, a, a2, a3, a4,…,a14}

Left Cosets

{e, a3, a6, a9, a12}

{a, a4, a7, a8, a14}

{a2, a5, a8, a9, a14}

16. Solutions

Order of U(40) = 16

Order of U(40)/K = 4

Since (4, 3) are relatively prime, the order of 3K = 4

17. Solutions

Order (S5) = 120

Order (H) = 3

Index = Order (S5)/Order (H) = 120/3= 40